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How to choose a good stainless steel smelting process
Half a century, stainless steel market demand and expansion of production capacity to promote the development of stainless steel smelting technology. Has successfully developed various advanced production technology, its development can be divided into three stages:
(1) Reduce the production cost of stainless steel: With the birth of AOD converter as the symbol, various stainless steel smelting technologies for decarburization and chrome plating have been developed, which greatly reduces the production cost.
(2) Improve the quality of stainless steel products: R & D "three-step stainless steel smelting process" can produce large quantities of ultra-pure ferritic stainless steel with [C + N] ≤80 × 10-6.
(3) Innovative production process: Due to the rapid growth of demand in the stainless steel market, the traditional process of producing stainless steel using return materials has been unable to meet the needs of the market. In order to meet the market demand, research and development of a variety of hot metal, scrap, ferroalloy direct production of stainless steel production process of a new process.
Stainless steel smelting process can be divided into the following four categories: all scrap stainless steel production process, hot metal + scrap production of stainless steel process, all hot metal + stainless steel production process and the entire iron + chrome ore production of stainless steel process. At present, the newly-built domestic and foreign stainless steel production lines mostly use the stainless steel process of hot metal + scrap or all hot metal + alloy.
First, hot metal + scrap stainless steel plate production process.
The main advantage of this process is greater flexibility in the supply of raw materials for stainless steel. The flexibility to adjust the ratio of hot metal to stainless steel return material can be adjusted based on market fluctuations and supply of nickel and stainless steel return materials. At the same time equipped with converter and electric furnace for stainless steel smelting, the use of converter dephosphorization of molten iron, the use of electric furnace melting alloy and return material. But its disadvantage is the long process, large investment, higher production costs. At present, China Baosteel Stainless Steel Plant (formerly a steel plant) using the process, the use of the converter for hot metal "three off" after dephosphorization of semi-steel high carbon content, blending into the electric furnace melting alloy, chromium received a higher yield . However, hot metal "three off" technical difficulty.
Second, all hot metal stainless steel smelting process.
The process is based on molten iron as the main raw material, with alloy direct production of various grades of stainless steel smelting process. Usually divided into the following two types: (1) the use of electric furnace melting alloy full stainless steel stainless steel smelting process. This process is in the decarburization chrome-paste furnace melting alloy at the same time, the process is short, less investment. However, stainless steel smelting furnace load, technical difficulty. Such as Nippon Steel Yawata plant, the plant uses 175 tons of converter production is not
Rust steel, desiliconization, desulfurization, dephosphorization of molten iron into the LD-OB converter. (2) all hot metal stainless steel smelting process using converter melting alloy. The main drawback is: lack of heat in the smelting process, the use of materials to return the proportion of ≤ 10%, can not be extensive use of stainless steel return material smelting stainless steel.
Third, hot metal + chrome ore stainless steel production process.
The process takes hot metal and chrome ore as the main raw materials, uses coke as reductive agent and heat source for melting reduction, and adds a small amount of scrap steel smelting, though it can reduce the amount of expensive ferrochromium alloy, but the smelting cycle is longer, the process is more, the investment cost Much higher than other processes.
Fourth, all the hot metal with stainless steel production process.
Characterized by the converter melting alloy and decarburization chrome-refining, to shorten the process, reduce production costs and improve production efficiency goals. Its technical characteristics: (1) the use of the converter dephosphorization pretreatment of molten iron, while melting part of the alloy or stainless steel return material (≤ 15%); (2) the converter directly melted chromium alloy, without electric furnace; (3) Strong oxygen supply and inert gas - oxygen mixing blowing process can produce [C] ≤0.15% low carbon stainless steel; (4) The bottom blowing inert gas strong mixing process to improve the life of furnace bottom and furnace.
The choice of stainless steel smelting process must be based on the supply of stainless steel raw materials, the correct choice of stainless steel production process. The main situations are as follows: (1) For the enterprises with smaller stainless steel production scale, the stainless steel production process suitable for stainless steel return material can be selected under the condition of adequate supply of stainless steel return material; (2) Enterprises, such as stainless steel can have a larger return material supply conditions, the choice of hot metal + stainless steel return for the production of electric furnace - converter stainless steel production process; (3) stainless steel production of large stainless steel return material supply shortage of steel companies , In order to reduce investment costs, the choice of stainless steel for the entire stainless steel smelting stainless steel production process.